Introduction – Earthquake is shaking of Earth’s surface, which results in sudden collapse in the Earth’s lithosphere, as a result of which seismic waves are created. This ranges in size varying from small, which will not even be felt by most of the people, too violent and enormous shaking, which causes huge natural calamities like road collapse, building collapse, etc. The strength of the seismic waves are measured in the Richter Scale. Let us see about the types, reason or causes for earthquake and safety measure during earthquake, in this essay.
Causes of Earthquake
- The most important reason that causes earthquake is considered to be the ‘Plate Tectonics’, which is the movements in the earth’s surface and sudden shift in the plates. This is said to occur in a very slow pace, however, if they happen more vigorously, it results in an earthquake.
- The second reason is considered to be the geological faults, which varies like Normal fault, Reverse fault and Strike-Slip fault.
- The third reason is the formation of ‘Earthquake Clusters’, which is caused sequentially starting from one place and moves subsequently to the other.
Types of Earthquake
There are many types of earthquakes depending on its density, focusing, etc. They are as follows:
- Shallow Focus Earthquake: Earthquake that occurs at the depth of 70 km, then it is considered to Shallow Focus Earthquake.
- Mid-Focus Earthquake: The earthquakes with focal-depth between 70 to 300 are considered to be Intermediate or Mid-focus earthquake.
- Deep Focus Earthquake: Here earthquakes may occur in great depths ranging between 300 to 700.
- Low Density Earthquake: Earthquakes of Low density are considered to be less hazardous and which does not cause any huge damage to the environment.
- High Density Earthquake: High density earthquakes are considered to cause more natural calamity. They are often violent and dangerous, which results in many losses.
Other Effects of Earthquake
An earthquake causes many natural calamities and invokes many other natural disasters like, ‘Tsunami, Landslides, avalanche, Floods, Fires, Volcano, etc.’. Due to these disasters, there will be a huge impact on human population.
An earthquake prediction can be done through analysing seismic waves, which is a branch of science called ‘Seismology’. Through this study the future earthquakes are predicted with the help of the magnitude change in the lithosphere. With the help of this study, we can predict the time, location and magnitude approximately. However, the exact magnitude cannot be found and we can just warn the people, regarding any disaster.
- The gas and electrical items should be turned off at the time of the earthquake.
- Once the shaking begins, we have to take cover beneath the desk or table.
- We have to stay indoors until the shaking stops.
- Stay away from shelves, furniture, high-rise buildings and trees that are at the risk of falling.
In this essay, we have mentioned the causes and safety measures to be followed, when you are becoming a victim of an earthquake. We should not panic in the times of calamity, since it brings more destruction.