Brahmaputra River is considered to be India’s biggest river and the third largest river in the world. In Sanskrit, Brahmaputa refers to “the son of Brahma”. The river flows in India along with its neighboring countries like Bangladesh and China. It flows through the tribal settlements and dense forests in the Indian subcontinent.
Brahmaputra River – The Geology
Geologically, Brahmaputra River is the youngest among other major rivers worldwide and it is also called as a moving ocean. Brahmaputra River travels up to 2880km from its origin (i.e. the Himalayan ranges through India and Tibet) and finally merges in the sea in Bangladesh and opens its streams like a Banyan tree’s roots.
In some areas, the river is very wide while traveling through India. Near Dibrugarh in Assam, it is whopping 16km wide, while it is 1.2 km wide at Pandu, near Guwahati. But it is 18km wide in the immediate downstream. The main source of Brahmaputra is a glacier. It has the highest sediment yield in the world, i.e. 852.4 t/km2/y and second highest at delta, after Amazon.
The total length of Brahmaputra River is around 2390 miles (3848 km). Fresh alluvial deposits and extensive flood plains have been associated in the river. During monsoons, flood seems to be wide in the geographical landscape of Brahmaputra River. Due to excessive deforestation, the watershed has caused huge rate of soil erosion in the downstream.
Brahmaputra River – The Origin
The origin of Brahmaputra River is the Chemayungdung mountain ranges which are around 60 miles southeast of Mansarovar Lake in Mt. Kailash which falls in Southern Tibet at the altitude of 5300m. Tomchok Khambab is a spring from the glaciers which gather volume and breath to be the Tsangpo, world’s highest river. Out of its total 2880km of length, Brahmaputra River traverses mostly as Tsangpo in Tibet. It flows 1625 km in Tibet along with the main Himalayan ranges before making entry to Arunachal Pradesh in India.
Course of the Brahmaputra
The course of this river related to the journey in three countries – India, Tibet and Bangladesh. It is called Tsang-Po in Tibet, where it is slow. It is known as Siang when it enters Arunachal Pradesh in India. It turns too wide when it enters Assam. It is divided into channels between Lakhimpur district and Dibrugarh district. b
These channels are known as the northern Kherkutia and southern Brahmaputra. They meet around 100km downstream and form Majuli Island. The river traverses from Assam Valley southwest as Brahmaputra and through Bangladesh south as River Jamuna. It meets the Ganges Delta in the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh.
Some of the major tributaries are Manas River, Sankosh River, and Dibang River. Other tributaries include Lohit River, Raidak River, Kolong River, and Dhansiri River.
The River Basin covers the areas of China, Tibet, Bangladesh and India. It covers the rivers like Burhidihing River, Lohit River, Kameng River, Dihang River, Manas River, Teesta River, Sankh River, Lachen River, Rangeet River, Jaldhaka River, and Lachung River.